How Does A Solar Panel Work?—The Science Behind Solar Energy!

Solar panels are comprised of photovoltaic cells that transform the sun's energy into electricity. 

Sandwiched between layers of semiconducting materials such as silicon are photovoltaic cells. Each layer possesses distinct electrical characteristics that are energized by photons from the sun to generate an electric field. This phenomenon is known as the photoelectric effect and is responsible for generating the current required to generate electricity. 

Solar panels create a direct electric current. An inverter then converts this into an alternating current that may be supplied into the National Grid or utilized by the home or business to which the solar panels are attached.

What Is The Science Behind Solar Energy?

Many individual photovoltaic cells (photovoltaic cells can turn sunlight into energy) make up solar PV panels. Semi-conductive materials, such as silicon, are used to construct these cells because they can conduct electricity while still retaining the electrical imbalance required to generate an electric field. 

The semiconductor in a solar PV cell absorbs light from the sun and releases several electrons that may be utilized to power an electric generator. Layers of positive and negative charge semiconductors are used to build the solar cell's structure and provide the electric field needed to charge electrons. The electric field attracts the free electrons and guides them to the metal plates that line the cell so that they can return to their source. An energy current describes this movement, and its strength determines how much energy each cell can generate. Once the freed electrons contact metal plates, they may flow via wires like in any other electric generator. 

Cables carry the power generated by the solar panels to the inverter. Direct current (DC) electricity is what solar panels produce, while alternating current (AC) energy is what most people use to power their homes and businesses. An inverter converts it to AC power to make the DC power source suitable for use in standard applications.

After the electricity is turned into a usable condition (AC power), it is delivered from the inverter to the electrical panel and dispersed throughout the building as needed. Lights, appliances, and other electrical items may now be easily powered by the sun. 

While the underlying science of solar is complex, anybody can explain why it makes sense for a business or property owner to invest in solar panels. If you're curious whether a solar solution is ideal for your company, a solar developer can explain all the advantages and help you get started.

What Is The Working Principle Of A Solar Panel?

Different Types Of Materials Used In Solar Panels

Silicon with a crystalline structure was utilized to create the first generation of solar photovoltaic modules, and silicon remains one of the most extensively used materials in solar photovoltaic technology. Constantly expanding research on silicon material focuses mostly on enhancing its efficiency and sustainability. In solar photovoltaics, monocrystalline and multicrystalline silicon are the two most fundamental kinds of crystalline silicon. 

Compared to multi-crystalline silicon materials, the efficiency of monocrystalline silicon materials is superior. Multi-crystalline silicon materials have the benefit of being less costly. Thus manufacturers employ them for low-cost solar energy systems. 

Solar photovoltaic hybrid cells are created by mixing crystalline and non-crystalline silicon. Although they are more efficient than ordinary solar cells, their production process is intricate.

Effects Of Sun Exposure On The Efficiency Of Solar Panels

A PV cell from Orlando Solar Company does not convert all of the sunlight that reaches it into power. The majority of it has been gone. Various design issues constrain the inability of a solar cell to convert the sunlight it receives. By designing with these considerations in mind, more efficiency may be attained.

  • Light consists of photons, or packets of energy, with a broad spectrum of wavelengths and intensities. The wavelengths of the sunlight that reaches the earth's surface span from ultraviolet through visible to infrared. Some photons are reflected, and others are transmitted when the light comes to the surface of a solar cell. Some of the photons absorbed have their energy converted to heat. The remaining have sufficient energy to free electrons from their atomic bonds to generate charge carriers and electric current. 
  • Recombination—For electric current to flow in a semiconductor, a "charge carrier," like a negatively-charged electron, must move through the material. A hole, which indicates the lack of an electron within a substance and functions as a positive charge carrier, is another type of charge carrier. When an electron finds a hole, the electrons can recombine and, as a result, balance out their contributions to the electrical current. Direct recombination occurs when light-generated electrons and holes collide, recombine, and produce a photon, reversing the process by which a solar cell generates power. It is one of the primary variables that restricts efficiency. Electrons or holes undergo indirect recombination when they hit an impurity, crystal defect, or interface, making it simpler for them to recombine and release their energy as heat. 
  • Temperature - At low temperatures, solar cells perform effectively. High temperatures alter the properties of semiconductors, leading to a little increase in current but a significant decrease in voltage. Cell and other module components may be damaged by prolonged exposure to high temperatures. Solar cells turn most of the sun's energy into heat; therefore, keeping them at an optimal temperature is crucial to their performance and durability.

Best Way To Install Solar Panels

  • Attach Mounting Hardware

Step one is fixing the Solar Panel mounting structures with the help of Solar Energy Company Orlando. Roof-ground or flush mounts can be used, depending on the situation. This skeleton of a design is sturdy and long-lasting. PV panels (monocrystalline or polycrystalline) are installed in one of two ways. In countries in the Northern Hemisphere, solar panels should face south to maximize their exposure to sunlight. The directions east and west are equally acceptable. Countries in the Southern Hemisphere would do well to look north.

Again, the mounting structure needs a very little incline. The possible inclination angles are 18, 30, or 36 degrees. Several companies have begun using solar trackers to maximize their solar energy conversion efficiency. 

  • Solar panel installation

The solar panels are then fastened to the mounting structure. Bolts and nuts are tightened to achieve this. The entire structure is meticulously fastened to ensure its longevity and resilience. 

  • Connect electrical wires.

The next step is to run the electrical cable. Since not all solar panels are created equal, universal connections like the MC4 are used during the cabling process. 

  •  Connect the Solar Inverter to the Main Panel

The next step is to link the setup to a solar inverter. The solar panel's positive wire is connected to the inverter's positive terminal, while the negative wire is attached to the negative terminal. 

After connecting the solar battery and grid input, the solar inverter may begin producing electricity. 

  • Link the Solar Inverter to the Solar Battery

The next step is to link the solar inverter to the solar battery. When using an inverter, the battery's positive terminal must be connected to the inverter's positive terminal, and vice versa. An off-grid solar system can't function without a battery to provide emergency power. 

  • Solar inverter grid connection

The inverter's next step is to be wired into the electrical system. This unit is wired into the building's electrical infrastructure through a regular wall outlet. An electrical panel with an output wire attached supplies electricity to the house. 

  • Turn on the solar inverter

Now that everything is wired and connected, you may flip the inverter switch to "ON" and turn on the main power to the house. Most solar inverters will include an electronic display detailing power production and consumption.

How Does Sunlight Operate With The Photovoltaic Effect?

A photovoltaic cell comprises semiconducting materials that absorb photons released by the sun and produce an electron flow. Photons are basic particles that transport sun energy at 300,000 kilometers per second. Albert Einstein referred to them as "light grains" in the 1920s. When photons impact a semiconductor material such as silicon, the electrons are ejected from the atoms, creating an empty vacuum. The wayward electrons wander aimlessly, searching for another "hole" to fill. 

However, the electrons must move in the same direction to generate an electric current. This is accomplished utilizing two distinct forms of silicon. The exposed silicon layer is doped with phosphorus atoms, which have one more electron than silicon, while the opposite side is doped with boron atoms, which have one fewer electron. The resultant sandwich functions similarly to a battery: the layer with excess electrons becomes the negative terminal (n), while the side with an electron shortage becomes the positive terminal (p). At the boundary between the two layers, an electric field is produced. 

When photons stimulate electrons, an electric field sweeps them to the n-side, while holes drift to the p-side. Electrons and holes are guided to the electrical contacts attached on both sides before transferring their electrical energy to the external circuit. The result is direct current. The top of the cell is coated with anti-reflective material to reduce photon loss due to surface reflection.

What Are The Benefits Associated With Implementing A Solar Panel?

  • Solar energy is pollution-free and emits no greenhouse emissions upon installation. 
  • Reliance on foreign oil and fossil fuels is diminished. 
  • Every day of the year, renewable, clean energy is accessible; even cloudy days provide energy. 
  • Return on investment versus paying for electricity bills 
  • Almost minimal maintenance is required as solar panels last over 30 years. 
  • If the grid is inner-tied, surplus energy can be sold back to the utility. 
  • Ability to live off-grid if all electricity generated is sufficient for the home/building. 
  • It can be put almost anywhere, from fields to buildings. 
  • Utilize batteries to store excess energy for use at night. Solar energy may heat the water, power buildings and homes, and even run automobiles. 
  • safer than standard electrical current 
  • Solar panels of the same size that are commercially accessible now will be more efficient in the future. 
  • Improving aesthetics makes solar panels more adaptable than prior types; for example, printing, flexible, photovoltaic shingles, etc. 
  • Various federal grants, tax breaks, and rebate programs assist with early expenses. 
  • No trenching is required because solar panels may be installed near or on-site.

Why Should You Have Solar Panels Installed On Your House?

  1. Spending Less On Electricity Bills 

One of the primary reasons people investigate solar panels is to reduce their utility bills. Even if the quantity of solar panels you install is insufficient to meet all of your electricity consumption, you can offset a portion of your expenses. Part electric providers permit households to sell some of their excess energy back to the business. The extra energy sold back to the firm is typically applied as a credit against future electric expenditures. And if you have a reliable solar generator, you may anticipate much more. 

  1. Protection Against Rising Electricity Prices 

Regardless of location, the price of power is rising. Most homeowners experience this monthly. Unfortunately, the cost of utilizing power will continue to rise in the near future, which will result in higher electric bills. Installing solar panels from Bakersfield is comparable to purchasing insurance against rising power prices. The capacity to generate one's energy eliminates the need to buy expensive electricity from utility corporations. 

  1. Installation is more reasonably priced than before 

Even while the price of power is increasing, the cost of installing solar panels is decreasing. Over the past decade, installation costs have been reduced by more than 50 percent worldwide. More homes have access to solar energy due to the decrease in installation costs. Most local governments give incentives to homeowners who put solar panels on their houses. 


Before you decide to purchase solar panels from  Solar company Orlando for your house, there are several variables to consider. As previously said, there is a rather big selection of solar panel types to choose from; thus, you must discuss your unique energy requirements and budget with a solar specialist like us before making your final decision.

We can advise you on the optimal angle, orientation, and panel size for optimum solar panel output. Generally, a 5-kilowatt solar panel would be sufficient for a family dwelling. Contact us today!


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Orlando, FL 32837

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